The word kirtan means adoration, or praising, of the divine. In Sikhism, kirtan refers especially to singing of praise as expressed in the hymns and compositions of Sikh scripture. Adoration expressed in song is considered by Sikhs to be the highest form of devotion, unsurpassed, the way to overcome the effect of ego and escape mortality.
The Sikhism code of conduct advises that at the gurdwara worship hall, or in the presence of sangat, kirtan may be performed publicly only by Sikhs? Kinds of kirtan styles permissible for worship include:
- Traditional raag - The classical musical score in which hymns are composed.
- Folk tunes - Call and repeat style of singing verses without extras or improvisation.
- Akhand kirtan - Unbroken adoration singing in continual praise.
- Amrit kirtan - Singing hymns of immortal nectar.
- Asa Di Var Kirtan - A selection of hymns sung in the early morning hours of Amritvela up until noon.
- Gurbani kirtan - Singing hymns of Sikh scripture.
- Nagar kirtan - Singing in a procession parading through the streets.
- Rain sabaee kirtan - An all night worship service of devotional singing.
- Shabad kirtan - Singing sacred hymns selected from:
For centuries kirtan was traditionally played in classic raag, and performed using string instruments including the rabab, dilruba, tanpoora and sitar. Modern day kirtan is played on a variety of instruments. Most common is the harmonium introduced by the British during colonial rule in India, accompanied by tabla, dhol, held rhythm instruments like kartal. Western style keyboard, synthesizers, guitar and violin are gaining popularity.
"Akhandd keertan tin bhojan chooraa ||
Unbroken adoration is their food and nourishment." SGGS||236
"Dharam saal apaar dai-aar thaakur sadaa keertan gaavehae ||
In Thy incomparable house of worship, the saints ceaselessly sing in praise of thy infinite mercy, O Lord Master." Sggs||248
"Meech huttai jam te chhuttai har keertan parvaes ||
Mortality is overcome and one escapes the messenger of death while absorbed in praising the divine." SGGS||297
Peace, poise and absolute bliss are obtained, when the Lord's Praises are sung." SGGS ||400